Job titles are the core of the workplace. The job title is key to attracting talent and often represents an employee's seniority on the team.
In this Guide, you'll learn about:
An organization's job titles are usually closely aligned with these 6 major tiers. Large organizations get much more complicated. The U.S. Federal Government has 15 job grades with 10 steps with each.
But a good place to start thinking about job titles is with the simple 6 tiers shown in the org. chart pyramid above.
Let's start at the top:
At the top of the job title hierarchy is the C-Suite. The CEO (Chief Executive Officer) usually manages all other people who have C-level titles as well as a President if there is one.
On some occasions (usually in a transitionary period), the CEO might report to both the board and an Executive Chairperson such as is the case with Disney's CEO Bob Chapek.
Here's an example of an org chart of C-Level executive job titles you might find in a large enterprise:
Check out The Top 20 C Level Titles [with Descriptions] for a comprehensive list of C-Suite job titles.
Note: Some industries use different job titles for leadership. For example, Non-Profits often refer to their leader as Executive Director. And healthcare companies sometimes use Chief Medical Officer and Chief Clinical Officer for their #1 role.
Below the C-Suite, most companies use the traditional VP, Director and Manager levels where:
People with individual contributor (IC) job titles often represent the largest group within an organization. IC job titles vary by department and often include a qualifier word such as:
An entry-level job title at a large enterprise might be related to an Intern/Training/Apprenticeship program. Examples:
Smaller companies often lack such entry-level programs and might skip such entry-level titles altogether. They might use the individual contributor-type job titles as the entry-level title instead (e.g. Marketing Specialist, HR Generalist, Sales Associate, etc).
Another common entry-level job title is "Assistant" (HR Assistant, Sales Assistant, Marketing Assistant, etc.). The job board Indeed had 309,198 jobs with "Assistant" in the title as of March 26, 2020. Some Assistant titles, though, require some experience. Executive Assistants for large enterprises are usually reserved for someone who has been an Exec Assistant before or has some industry experience.
Now, let's look at some top departments and the job titles they use at every one of the 6 major tiers of titles.
Most Information Technology (IT) teams have a traditional set of job tiers. The IT Org chart/hierarchy might look like this:
Many large enterprises use Chief Information Officer or Chief Technology Officer as the title responsible for IT. Smaller companies might simply call them VP of IT, Head of IT or Director of IT.
The CIO or CTO usually reports into the CEO or, in fewer cases, the COO or CFO.
What are the most popular IT job titles these days?
Check out The Top 35 IT Job Titles for a list of job titles candidates search for the most based on a recent month of Google queries. Here are top 10:
While software teams often report into IT, many modern organizations (especially tech-driven companies) have their own org chart that might bypass IT and report directly into the CEO.
Here's an example of an org chart of a typical software engineering/development team:
At Airbnb, for example, the job title used for their software team leader is VP of Engineering and they report to the CEO (see Software Engineering Problems ("Who runs the show: Airbnb senior management")).
In Airbnb's case, the Director of IT and Director of Security both report to the VP of Engineering.
Other companies might use the title VP of Software Engineering for their software team leader.
Here's a list of the 10 most common software job titles that candidates search for based on a recent month of Google queries (source: The Top 50 Software Job Titles [Ranked by What Candidates Search For]).
You'll note that some software titles are general (e.g. Web Developer or Software Engineer) while others are platform-specific (Java Developer, Salesforce Developer).
There's also a healthy debate on the differences between "Engineer" versus "Developer" versus "Programmer" versus "Coder", etc. Check out The Top 50 Software Job Titles for an explanation of their similarities and differences.
Below is an engineering hierarchy chart with top seniority listed at the top down to entry-level jobs at the bottom:
A quick note on software engineering. Although many companies hire engineers, some also hire developers.We have found that these job titles can be used interchangeably. You can read more about the developer vs engineer debate in our top 50 software developer job titles blog.
For this blog, we decided to focus on job titles with the word “engineer” or “engineering” in them. Now, let’s have a look at a typical org chart of engineering job titles.
Here is a list of the 10 most common Engineering job titles/keywords searched for based on a recent month of Google queries (Source: Top 30 Engineering Job Titles [with Descriptions]):
While researching cyber security job titles, I ran into a small dilemma. Is it “cyber security” (2 words) or “cybersecurity” (one word)?
The common person knows that cyber security and cybersecurity are one in the same. But it turns out that candidates use one version (when they Google for jobs) at a much higher clip.
A quick example (or three) before we jump right into the top Cyber Security Job Titles:
Now that you know how candidates are searching for job titles in cyber security, let’s have a look at a typical org chart of cyber security job titles.
Here is a list of the 10 most common cyber security job titles/keywords searched for based on a recent month of Google queries (Source: Top 30 Cyber Security Job Titles [+ Descriptions]):
The top title in Sales is usually Chief Revenue Officer (CRO) or Chief Sales Officer. CROs sometimes manage teams beyond traditional sales. At Splunk and Namely, the CRO manages both sales and marketing.
At most SaaS (software as a service) companies, the CRO manages "Customer Success", the team that takes care of the client once a sale is made. Most SaaS companies have the CRO manage Customer Success because the majority of SaaS revenue comes from renewals and upselling after the initial sale.
Here's a typical sales hierarchy/org chart with examples of jobs within each.
A key difference in sales job titles versus titles in other departments (like IT, Marketing and Finance) is that many sales titles are based on territories. Examples
Sales titles can also be based on vertical industry such as:
Which titles do candidates search for the most?
Here is a list of the 10 most common sales job titles/keywords searched for based on a recent month of Google queries (Source: The 16 Best Sales Job Titles [Ranked by Search Volume] ):
All of the above job titles (except #4) are individual contributor positions. This is another unique part of sales job titles. The ratio of individual contributors to managers is very high.
The job title for the top marketer is usually Chief Marketing Officer (CMO). The CMO reports to the CEO.
Here's a hierarchy/org chart of the 6 core levels of marketing job titles:
The Top 25 Best Marketing Job Titles shows a list of the most common marketing titles candidates search the web -- here are the top 10:
A lot of people use Marketing and Communications interchangeably, but Communications can be its own world.
Here's a hierarchy/org chart of the 6 core levels of communications job titles:
The Top 20 Communications Job Titles [Includes PR] shows a list of the most common communications titles candidates search the web -- here are the top 10:
Public Relations can also be its own island. In those cases, here's how the titles for a PR team often look. Here's a hierarchy/org chart of the 6 core levels of public relations job titles:
Top 20 Public Relations Job Titles [+ Descriptions] shows a list of the most common public relations titles candidates search the web -- here are the top 10:
During our search for the most popular roles in a design team, we found 6 types of design jobs. The most-searched-for design job titles fall under one of these categories:
Art Director and Creative Director are searched on Google 6,800 times per month (combined), which puts them in the top 10 most-searched-for design job titles.
Depending on the size of the company an Art Director may also take on the role of the Creative Director; sometimes called the Design Director. At larger companies, like Facebook or instance, the design team uses all 3 design job titles. At Facebook, these design roles are part of the Global Creative Team, each focusing on different products (e.g. Instagram, Whatsapp & Facebook general).
Large or small, the design team plays a critical role in most businesses. Let’s have a look at a typical design job title hierarchy.
The design job titles candidates search on the most, according to The Top 25 Design Job Titles (by Candidate Search Volume) are:
Social media job positions often fall within the Marketing department. However, they have become so vital that it's worth highlighting social media-only titles here.
Here are brief descriptions of a few of the most common social media positions:
A Social Media Manager is responsible for growing a business through social networks like Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter. The role of a Social Media Manager is to create social media content that is in line with a brand and lead social media marketing campaigns
A Social Media Coordinator works with the social media team in an organization to write content for various social media channels. A Social Media Coordinator also frequently interacts with fans or followers and measures social media engagement. Other duties of a Social Media Coordinator are staying up to date on the latest social media platforms and trends, share social media data with senior management, and building a social community that elevates the brand.
A Community Manager, sometimes called a Social Media Community Manager, is a link between loyal brand followers and an organization. A Community Manager is responsible for interacting with a company’s social media audience on various platforms to build a strong following. A Community Manager researches the latest trends and uses them to actively promote a brand which can increase popularity and the bottom line.
Social media is also changing so fast that employers are hiring for platform-specific positions. For example, Instagram Brand Ambassador and Instagram Influencer were the #6 and #14 most searched social media job titles as of 2020.
Check out The Top 20 Social Media Job Titles [by Popularity] for a more comprehensive list.
The senior-most HR job title is usually Chief Human Resources Officer (CHRO) or Chief People Officer (CPO). The Chief Talent Officer title is sometimes used for the top HR leader, though that is usually at an early-stage (mostly tech) company.
Here's a classic HR hierarchy/org chart:
The HR job titles candidates search on the most, according to The Top 40 Human Resources Job Titles (by Candidate Search Volume) are:
Some organizations include diversity within HR but many more modern companies are including diversity in the C-Suite with its own team. An argument for separating diversity from HR is that some companies have diversity goals beyond their employees (e.g. diversity of vendors or customers).
There can be a fuzzy line between customer service and account management. For example, the role “Account Manager” is most often a sales role that hunts for new business (e.g. Lenovo uses Global Account Manager for a “Proactive Solutions Selling” position). However, Account Manager is also sometimes used as a customer service/customer success role focused on supporting and growing an existing account.
To help clarify when an Account Manager is more of a sales role, a best practice is to put “Sales” in the job title. Here’s a typical org chart of Customer Service position titles.
The customer service job titles candidates search on the most, according to The Top 20 Customer Service Job Titles [with Descriptions] are:
What is the difference between a contact center and a call center? Many top companies like AAA, Amazon, and Facebook have changed the name of their "call center" to "contact center" because "call center" seems outdated. These terms can be used interchangeably, but there are differences thanks to technology.
If your company uses more than phone calls for customer support, you might go with "contact center." But, "call center" titles are still widely recognized and used by companies like CBS, ADP, and AT&T. What about call center vs call centre. Some global companies use one or the other, or both. They mean the same thing, but "center" is the American English spelling, and "centre" is the Commonwealth English spelling.
Call center titles for leaders vary depending on company size and industry. Some larger companies roll customer service and call center positions into 1 or more groups. For example, Walmart uses "Customer Service and Call Center jobs" as a category on their careers page. They also have a Chief Customer Officer, Janey Whiteside, who reports to the CEO and the E-Commerce Chief. Whiteside looks after the Walmart "customer journey," including call center support.
Call centers aim to have a high volume of calls to solve customer issues. Customer service gives more 1-on-1 support during the entire customer process. Let's have a look at a typical call center hierarchy.
The call center job titles candidates search on the most, according to The Top 20 Call Center Job Titles [with Descriptions] are:
Product Development and Product Management are not exactly the same, but they are very closely related when it comes to the product team structure. Product requirements are written by the Product Management team who then works directly with the Product Development team to set the priorities and vision for a product.
In smaller companies, the Product Management team and the Product Development team may be one and the same. Oftentimes, a Product Management job description even includes the requirement of a Product Development background or skillset.
Let’s have a look at an org chart showing a typical product team structure:
The product management job titles candidates search on the most, according to The Top 20 Product Management Job Titles [with Descriptions ] are:
When looking for a warehouse worker job description, you will find warehouse job titles listed under a handful of teams including:
Although these companies’ warehouse jobs are listed in different teams, they all have a similar warehouse shipping and receiving job description, among other warehouse job titles. The size of your organization and the product you provide steers what qualifies as a warehouse job and who leads the team.
So as you can see, warehouse jobs may fall under any of these teams. Let’s have a look at a typical org chart of Warehouse job titles to get a better picture of how a warehouse team fits together.
The warehouse job titles candidates search on the most, according to The Top 40 Warehouse Job Titles [with Descriptions] are:
The senior-most Diversity job title is usually Chief Diversity Officer or Chief Diversity & Inclusion Officer. The Chief Culture Officer title is sometimes used for the top Diversity leader, though that is usually at an early-stage (mostly tech) company.
Here's a classic Diversity hierarchy/org chart:
The Diversity job titles candidates search on the most, according to The Top 20 Diversity Job Titles (by Candidate Search Volume) are:
What is Operations? Operations positions make an organization run smoothly. Here is a simple definition from Operations Job Titles Explained (Monster) article. “…an Operations employee contributes to making an employer’s wheels run less expensively with fewer squeaks and bumps.” Here’s a typical org chart of Operations position titles.
The Operations job titles candidates search on the most, according to The Top 20 Operations Job Titles [with Descriptions] are:
Administrative jobs are often interwoven with Operations (most common), Finance, HR and Legal. We perused 40 top career pages to see how top-performing public companies list Administrative jobs versus Operations jobs. Here’s a typical org chart of Administrative position titles.
The Administrative job titles that candidates search on (on Google) the most, according to The Top 20 Administrative Job Titles [with Descriptions] are:
Executive Assistant titles are some of the most-searched roles for an administrative team. Executive Assistants and Administrative Assistants share very similar roles and responsibilities. Some companies only use Executive Assistant titles, some only use Administrative Assistant titles, and some have both.
There are different levels of executive assistant roles. Depending on the size of the company, the admin structure can include one support person for executives, or many. In larger companies, a candidate may start as an Administrative Trainee then move up to Administrative Assistant (I, II, or III), then Senior Executive Assistant…and so on. Here’s a typical hierarchy of assistant job titles:
The executive assistant job titles that candidates search on (on Google) the most, according to The Top 20 Executive Assistant Job Titles [with Descriptions] are:
Facilities Management (or Facility Management) is a key piece of a company’s infrastructure. In larger companies, the Head of Facilities Management usually reports directly to the Chief Operating Officer (COO) or VP of Operations. Larger companies with multiple offices, also tend to have multiple Facilities Managers for each location or division. Smaller companies may only have 1 Facilities Manager or Director role that reports to the CEO.
Facilities’ job descriptions and duties can look very different depending on the type of company you are looking at. Let’s have a look at a typical facilities management job title hierarchy.
The facilities job titles that candidates search on (on Google) the most, according to The Top 20 Facilities Job Titles [with Descriptions] are:
The legal job titles Chief Legal Officer and General Counsel are sometimes used interchangeably, but they also carry out different roles depending on the size and type of company.
For example at Crowdstrike, Paul Shinn is the Chief Legal Officer and Cathleen Anderson is the General Counsel. Both are high-level leadership roles, but they manage different parts of the legal processes at Crowdstrike.
During our search for the most popular legal positions, we found 6 types of tasks managed by a company legal department. Depending on the industry and the company size, the legal team is responsible for one or more of these tasks:
A smaller start-up company may only have a single General Counsel or a Legal Consultant, but larger companies often have an extensive legal team. A legal team structure varies at private law firms as well. For this article, we focus on legal job titles at top companies, but also include a few top-searched legal titles for law firms and courts. Let’s have a look at a typical legal hierarchy.
The legal titles that candidates search on (on Google) the most, according to The Top 20 Accounting Job Titles are:
The senior-most Accounting job titles are Chief Accounting Officer (CAO) and Chief Financial Officer (the CFO is used in businesses where Finance and Accounting are one department).
Here's a traditional Accounting hierarchy/org chart:
The Accounting titles that candidates search on (on Google) the most, according to The Top 20 Accounting Job Titles are:
The senior-most Finance job title is Chief Financial Officer (CFO).
Here's a traditional Finance hierarchy/org chart:
The Finance titles that candidates search on (on Google) the most, according to The Top 20 Finance Job Titles are:
Employers looking to optimize the length of a job title to better attract candidates might follow these 3 tips, according to How Long Should a Job Title Be?
An easy way to trim down the length of job titles is to avoid unneeded words or characters such as location, symbols ($,!,*), the name of your business and whether the job is full-time versus part-time.
You'll also want to make sure your job titles are gender-neutral. There continues to be job titles that reveal gender stereotyping such as:
Check out this list of gender specific job titles at Gender-Neutral Suggestions for the Top 25 Job Titles That Still Use the Word “Man” for titles to avoid.
Some companies come up with creative job titles for different roles. Take these examples:
These creative job titles can be attractive for an employee to possess.
Other companies try to be outright funny. Here are a few funny job titles I've seen over the years:
A word of caution: while an employee might enjoy a creative job title for their job, it usually doesn't help employers recruit. There are very few candidates who input a weird job title in their job search.
Job titles stand out, but should job titles be capitalized? It depends on how you plan to use them. Writing in a professional setting may call for capitalizing job titles. Depending on the type of communication piece you are writing, you will want to follow a style guide.
The most popular style guides are:
Job titles appear in both written documents or digitally on places like a Linkedin profile or job posting. Here are some examples of when to capitalize job titles.
More about capitalizing job titles can be found here: Do You Capitalize Job Titles? [4 Examples]
Editor's note: I plan to add plenty more content on job titles, including tips on additional departments. Thanks for reading and come back if you'd like to see updates!
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